PATANJALI'S YOGA APHORISMS

APPENDIX

REFERENCES TO YOGA

Shvet‚shvatara Upanishad

CHAPTER II

अग्निर्यत्राभिमथ्यते वायुर्यत्राधिरुध्यते ।
सोमो यत्रातिरिच्यते तत्र सञ्जायते मनः ॥६॥

6. Where the fire is rubbed, where the air is controlled, where the Soma flows over, there a (perfect) mind is created.

त्रिरुन्नतं स्थाप्य समं शरीरं
हृदीन्द्रियाणि मनसा सन्निवेश्य ।
ब्रह्मोडुपेन प्रतरेत विद्वान्
स्रोतांसि सर्वाणि भयानकानि ॥८॥

8. Placing the body in a straight posture, with the chest, the throat and the head held erect, making the organs enter the mind, the sage crosses all the fearful currents by means of the raft of Brahman.

प्राणान् प्रपीड्येह संयुक्तचेष्टः
क्षीणे प्राणे नासिकयोच्छ्वसीत ।
दुष्टाश्वयुक्तमिव वाहमेनं
विद्वान् मनो धारयेताप्रमत्तः ॥९॥

9. The man of well-regulated endeavours controls the Pr‚na; and when it has become quieted, breathes out through the nostrils. The persevering sage holds his mind as a charioteer holds the restive horses.

समे शुचौ शर्करावह्निवालुका-
विवर्जिते शब्दजलाश्रयादिभिः ।
मनोनुकूले न च चक्षुपीडने
गुहानिवाताश्रयणे प्रयोजयेत् ॥१०॥

10. In (lonely) places as mountain caves where the floor is even, free of pebbles, fire, or sand, where there are no disturbing noises from men or waterfalls, in auspicious places helpful to the mind and pleasing to the eyes. Yoga is to be practised (mind is to be joined).

नीहारधूमार्कानिलानलानां
खद्योतविद्युत्-स्फटिक-शशीनाम् ।
एतानि रूपाणि पुरःसराणि
ब्रह्मण्यभिव्यक्तिकराणि योगे ॥११॥

11. Like snowfall, smoke, sun, wind, fire, firefly, lightning, crystal, moon, these forms, coming before, gradually manifest the Brahman in Yoga.

पृथ्व्यप्तेजोऽनिलखे समुत्थिते
पञ्चात्मके योगगुणे प्रवृत्ते ।
न तस्य रोगो न जरा न मृत्युः
प्राप्तस्य योगाग्निमयं शरीरम् ॥१२॥

12. When the perceptions of Yoga, arising from earth, water, light, fire, ether, have taken place, then Yoga has begun. Unto him does not come disease, nor old age, nor death, who has got a body made up of the fire of Yoga.

लघुत्वमारोग्यमलोलुपत्वं
वर्णप्रसादः स्वरसौष्ठवञ्च ।
गन्धः शुभो मूत्रपुरीषमल्पं
योगप्रवृत्तिं प्रथमां वदन्ति ॥१३॥

13. The first signs of entering Yoga are lightness, health, non-covetousness, clearness of complexion, a beautiful voice, an agreeable odour in the body, and scantiness of excretions.

यथैव बिम्बं मृदयोपलिप्तं
तेजोमयं भ्राजते तत् सुधान्तम् ।
तद्वाऽऽत्मतत्त्वं प्रसमीक्ष्य देही
एकः कृतार्थो भवते वीतशोकः ॥१४॥

14. As gold or silver, first covered with earth, and then cleaned, shines full of light, so the embodied man seeing the truth of the Atman as one, attains the goal and becomes sorrowless.

Y‚jnavalkya quoted by Shankara

(In Svet‚shvatara Upanishad Bh‚shya.)

आसनानि समभ्यस्य वाञ्छितानि यथाविधि ।
प्राणायामं ततो गार्गि जितासनगतोऽभ्यसेत् ॥
मृद्वासने कुशान् सम्यगास्तीर्याजिनमेव च ।
लम्बोदरं च सम्पूज्य फलमोदकभक्षणैः ॥
तदासने सुखासीनः सव्ये न्यस्येतरं करम् ।
समग्रीवशिराः सम्यक् संवृतास्यः सुनिश्चलः ॥
प्राङ्मुखोदङ्मुखो वाऽपि नासाग्रन्यस्तलोचनः ।
अतिभुक्तमभुक्तं वा वर्जयित्वा प्रयत्नतः ॥
नडीसंशोधनं कुर्यादुक्तमार्गेण यत्नतः ।
वृथा क्लेषो भवेत्तस्य तच्छोधनमकुर्वतः ॥
नासाग्रे शशभृद्बीजं चन्द्रातपवितानितम् ।
सप्तमस्य तु वर्गस्य चतुर्थं बिन्दुसंयुतम् ॥
विश्वमध्यस्थमालोक्य नासाग्रे चक्षुषी उभे ।
इडया पूरयेद्वायुं बाह्यं द्वादशमात्रकैः ॥
ततोऽग्निं पूर्ववद्ध्यायेत् स्फुरज्ज्वालावलीयुतम् ।
रुषष्ठं बिन्दुसंयुक्तं शिखिमण्डलसंस्थितम् ॥
ध्यायेद्विरेचयेद्वायुं मन्दं पिङ्गलया पुनः ।
पुनः पिङ्गलयापूर्य घ्राणं दक्षिणतः सुधीः ॥
तद्वद्विरेचयेद्वायुमिडया तु शनैः शनैः ।
त्रिचतुर्वत्सरं चापि त्रिचतुर्मासमेव वा ॥
गुरुणोक्तप्रकारेण रहस्येवं समभ्यरेत् ।
प्रातर्मध्यान्दिने सायं स्नात्वा षट्कृत्व आचरेत् ॥
सन्ध्यादिकर्म कृत्वैव मध्यरात्रेऽपि नित्यशः ।
नाड़ीशुद्धिमवाप्नोति तच्चिह्नं द्श्यते पृथक् ॥
शरीरलधुता दीप्तिर्जठराग्निविवर्धनम् ।
नादाभिव्यक्तिरित्येतल्लिङ्गं तच्छुद्धिसूचनम् ॥
प्राणायामं ततः कुर्याद्रेचकपूरककुम्भकैः ।
प्राणापानसमायोगः प्राणायामः प्रकीर्तितः ॥

        *    *    *

पूरयेत् षोडशैर्मात्रैरापादतलमस्तकम् ।
मात्रैर्द्वात्रिंशकैः पश्चाद्रेचयेत् सुसमाहितः ॥
सम्पूर्णकुम्भवद्वायोर्निश्चलं मूर्घ्नि देशतः ।
कुम्भकं धारमं गार्गि चतुःषष्टज्ञा तु मात्रया ॥
ऋषयस्तु वदन्तयन्ये प्राणायामपरायणाः ।
पवित्रीभूताः पूतान्त्राः प्रभञ्जनजये रताः ॥
तत्रादौ कुम्भक कृत्वा चतुःषष्टज्ञा तु मात्रया ।
रेचयेत् षोडशैर्मात्रैर्नासेनैकेन सुन्दरि ।
ततश्च पूरयेद्वायुं शनैः षोडशमात्रया ॥
प्राणायामैर्दहेद्दोषान् धारणाभिश्च किल्बिषान् ।
प्रत्याहाराच्च संसर्गान्ध्यानेनानीश्वरान् गुणान् ॥

"After practicing the postures as desired, according to rules, then, O G‚rgi, the man who has conquered the posture will practice Pr‚n‚y‚ma.

"Seated in an easy posture, on a (deer or tiger) skin, placed on Kusha grass, worshipping Ganapati with fruits and sweetmeats, placing the right palm on the left, holding the throat and head in the same line, the lips closed and firm, facing the east or the north, the eyes fixed on the tip of the nose, avoiding too much food or fasting, the N‚dis should be purified, without which the practice will be fruitless. Thinking of the (seed-word) "Hum," at the junction of Pingal‚ and Id‚ (the right and the left nostrils), the Ida should be filled with external air in twelve M‚tr‚s (seconds); then the Yogi meditates on fire in the same place with the word "Rung," and while meditating thus, slowly ejects the air through the Pingala (right nostril). Again filling in through the Pingala the air should be slowly ejected through the Ida, in the same way. This should be practiced for three or four years, or three or four months, according to the directions of a Guru, in secret (alone in a room), in the early morning, at midday, in the evening, and at midnight (until) the nerves become purified. Lightness of body, clear complexion, good appetite, hearing of the N‚da, are the signs of the purification of nerves. Then should be practiced Pranayama composed of Rechaka (exhalation), Kumbhaka (retention), and Puraka (inhalation). Joining the Pr‚na with the Ap‚na is Pranayama.

"In sixteen Matras filling the body from the head to the feet, in thirty-two Matras the Prana is to be thrown out, and with sixty-four the Kumbhaka should be made.

"There is another Pranayama in which the Kumbhaka should first be made with sixty-four Matras, then the Prana should be thrown out with sixteen, and the body next filled with sixteen Matras.

"By Pranayama impurities of the body are thrown out; by Dh‚ran‚ the impurities of the mind; by Praty‚h‚ra impurities of attachment; and by Samadhi is taken off everything that hides the lordship of the Soul."

S‚nkhya

BOOK III

भावनोपचयात् शुद्धस्य सर्वं प्रकृतिवत् ॥२९॥

29. By the achievement of meditation, there come to the pure one (the Purusha) all powers of nature.

रागोपहतिर्ध्यानम् ॥३०॥

30. Meditation is the removal of attachment.

वृत्तिनिरोधात्तत्सिद्धिः ॥३१॥

31. It is perfected by the suppression of the modifications.

धारणाऽऽसनस्वकर्मणा तत्सिद्धिः ॥३२॥

32. By Dh‚ran‚, posture, and performance of one's duties, it is perfected.

निरोधश्छर्दिविधारणाभ्याम् ॥३३॥

33. Restraint of the Pr‚na is by means of expulsion and retention.

स्थिरसुखमासनम् ॥३४॥

34. Posture is that which is steady and easy.

वैराग्यादभ्यासाच्च ॥३६॥

36. Also by non-attachment and practice, meditation is perfected.

तत्त्वाभ्यासान्नेति नेतीति त्यागाद्विवेकसिद्धिः ॥७४॥

74. By reflection on the principles of nature, and by giving them up as "not It, not It" discrimination is perfected.

BOOK IV

आवृत्तिरसकृदुपदेशात् ॥३॥

3. Instruction is to be repeated.

श्येनवत् सुखदुःखी त्यागवियोगाभ्याम् ॥५॥

5. As the hawk becomes unhappy if the food is taken away from him and happy if he gives it up himself (so he who gives up everything voluntarily is happy).

अहिनिर्ल्वयिनीवत् ॥६॥

6. As the snake is happy in giving up his old skin.

असाधनानुचिन्तनं बन्धाय भरतवत् ॥८॥

8. That which is not a means of liberation is not to be thought of; it becomes a cause of bondage, as in the case of Bharata.

बहुभिर्योगे विरोधो रागादिभिः कुमारीशङ्खवत् ॥९॥

9. From the association of many things there is obstruction to meditation, through passion, aversion, etc., like the shell bracelets on the virgin's hand.

द्वाभ्यामपि तथैव ॥१०॥

10. It is the same even in the case of two.

निराशः सुखी पिङ्गलावत् ॥११॥

11. The renouncers of hope are happy, like the girl Pingal‚.

बहुशास्त्रगुरूपासनेऽपि सारादानं षट्पदवत् ॥१३॥

13. Although devotion is to be given to many institutes and teachers, the essence is to be taken from them all as the bee takes the essence from many flowers.

इषुकारवन्नैकचित्तस्य समाधिहानिः ॥१४॥

14. One whose mind has become concentrated like the arrowmaker's does not get his meditation disturbed.

कृतनियमलङ्घनादानर्थक्यं लोकवत् ॥१५॥

15. Through transgression of the original rules there is non-attainment of the goal, as in other worldly things.

प्रणतिब्रह्मचर्योपसर्पणानि कृत्वा सिद्धिर्बहुकालात्तद्वत् ॥१९॥

19. By continence, reverence, and devotion to Guru, success comes after a long time (as in the case of Indra).

न कालनियमो वामदेववत् ॥२०॥

20. There is no law as to time, as in the case of V‚madeva.

लब्धातिशययोगाद्वा तद्वत् ॥२४॥

24. Or through association with one who has attained perfection.

न भोगात् राघशान्तिर्मुनिवत् ॥२७॥

27. Not by enjoyments is desire appeased even with sages (who have practiced Yoga for long).

BOOK V

योगसिद्धयोऽप्यौषधादिसिद्धिवन्नापलापनीयाः ॥१२८॥

128. The Siddhis attained by Yoga are not to be denied like recovery through medicines etc.


BOOK VI

स्थिरसुखमासनमिति न नियमः ॥२४॥

24. Any posture which is easy and steady is an ¬sana; there is no other rule.

Vy‚sa-Sutras

CHAPTER IV, SECTION I

आसीनः सम्भवात् ॥७॥

7. Worship is possible in a sitting posture.

ध्यानाच्च ॥८॥

8. Because of meditation.

अचलत्वञ्चापेक्षय ॥९॥

9. Because the meditating (person) is compared to the immovable earth.

स्मरन्ति च ॥१०॥

10. Also because the Smritis say so.

यत्रैकाग्रता तत्राविशेषात् ॥११॥

11. There is no law of place; wherever the mind is concentrated, there worship should be performed.

These several extracts give an idea of what other systems of Indian Philosophy have to say upon Yoga.